Camels crossing the desert near Africa's highest sand dunes at Temet, Air and Tenere Natural Reserves world heritage site, NigerElephants crossing the Zambezi river in Mana Pools National Park world heritage site, ZimbabweIce cliffs near the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro National Park world heritage site, TanzaniaBlack and white ruffed lemur, Rainforests of the Atsinanana world heritage site, Madagascar

Dja Faunal Reserve - Cameroon

Map showing the location of the Dja Wildlife Reserve world heritage site in Cameroon

 

 

Website Category:  African Forests

Area: 5,260 km2

Inscribed: 1987

 

Criteria: (ix) ecological processes; (x) biodiversity

Values: Dja Reserve is one of the largest and most biologically diverse tracts of protected rainforest in central Africa.  Ancient granite outcrops pierce the forests canopy, creating a mosaic of swamps and grasslands in the forest.  More than 1200 plant species, 107 mammals, 429 birds and 60 fish have been recorded, including western lowland gorilla, chimpanzee and 7 other species of diurnal primate.  Dja is one of the best places to see the extraordinary rockfowl, Picathartes.

A comprehensive review of the world heritage values of the site is provided below, together with details of the area's conservation status and the threats it faces.

 

 

Slideshow of Dja Faunal Reserve

REVIEW OF WORLD HERITAGE VALUES: According to IUCN’s Conservation Outlook Assessment (2014), the specific attributes which qualify Dja Faunal Reserve for world heritage status can be summarised as follows:

Chimpanzees are found in Dja Faunal Reserve, alongside at least 13 other species of primate.  Although inventories are very incomplete, it is thought that Dja supports a greater diversity of plants and animals than most other African rainforestsDiversity of primate species.  Although the area is poorly studied, it is known to support at least 14 primate species including western lowland gorilla, chimpanzee, greater white-nosed guenon, moustached guenon, crowned guenon, talapoin, red-capped mangabey, white-cheeked mangabey, agile mangabey, black and white colobus monkey, drill and mandrill, as well as the nocturnal potto and Demidorff's galago.  Very few sites elsewhere in Africa support such a high diversity of primates in a single location.

Exceptional diversity of other plant and animal species. The Dja Reserve is believed to be one of Africa's most species-rich rainforests, although little is known of most groups of plants and animals. More than 100 species of mammals have been recorded.

Habitat of globally threatened species.  In addition to the globally threatened primates listed above, other endangered large mammals that occur in Dja Faunal Reserve include forest elephant, bongo and leopard. Threatened birds include Bates's weaver (which is endemic to southern Cameroon) and the extra-ordinary grey-necked rockfowl (Picathartes). Reptiles include two species of forest crocodile, both of which are globally threatened.

Dja Faunal Reserve protects a diverse association of Congolese rainforest communities and some magnificent individual trees such as this onePrimary rain forest with rich and varied ecosystems.  Dja Reserve is notable for the diversity of its species and the pristine condition of its primary rainforest ecosystem. Situated at the heart of the Congo Basin, the reserve covers a diversity of topographical, bio-geographical and geological gradients with a resulting diversity of forest types. The vegetation comprises dense evergreen Congo rainforest with a main canopy at 30-40 m rising to 60 m, rich in lianes and with a diverse shrub layer below the main canopy. Mixed-species stands of rainforest are interspersed with almost pure stands of ‘mono-dominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest, as well as areas of riverine and swamp vegetation.  Some secondary forest is found around some old villages (which were abandoned in 1946) and this contributes to overall habitat diversity.

 

Conservation efforts by timber companies as well as the management authority include raising awareness of animal species that are protected by law in Cameroon through pictorial roadside posters such as thisCONSERVATION STATUS AND PROSPECTS: There is significant concern for the overall outlook for conservation of Dja’s world heritage values.   Poaching is probably the single greatest threat to the area’s wildlife, especially in the eastern sector of the reserve where an organized network of commercial trade in bushmeat and other wildlife products appears to function. The poaching threat is exacerbated by an influx of people drawn to the peripheral areas of the reserve by a growing number of development projects including mining operations, dam construction and plantation development. The reserve’s management authority lacks the financial, technical and human resources to control poaching effectively and address some of the other major threats, so populations of key wildlife species are probably in steep decline (although the lack of scientific monitoring data makes this hard to verify). The natural values of the site are still present, but a major improvement in management effectiveness is required to halt, and ultimately reverse the present trend in degradation of resources.

Security checkpoint at the entrance to Dja Faunal Reserve.  The reserve is managed on a very limited budget and protection activities are insufficient to effectively control the many threats the area facesMANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS: Poaching pressure within the reserve is increasing rapidly (with the demand for bush meat), and the management authority has been largely unable to control it due to lack of resources.  Additional conservation funding has been awarded recently and it is hoped this will help strengthen management and improve enforcement, supervision and control. An important element of the enhanced management effort will be to monitor the effectiveness of anti-poaching actions and adapt management interventions in the light of experience.

REVIEW OF CONSERVATION ISSUES AND THREATS: The following issues represent specific threats to the ecology, conservation and values of the Dja Faunal Reserve world heritage site.

A patrol team with a haul of confiscated smoked bushmeat and a pair of elephant tusks.  Illegal commercial hunting for bushmeat and wildlife trophies is the greatest single threat to conservation efforts at Dja Faunal ReserveIllegal commercial hunting. Commercial poaching is increasing and currently represents the main threat to the site. In 2008, 2,983 illegally-hunted animals were seized in the course of 308 anti-poaching patrols, while in 2010 this number increased to 8,919 animals seized by only 101 patrols. Poaching is widespread within the reserve, notably in the eastern sector of Lomié where an organized network appears to function with the support of local elites. Poaching pressure is likely to increase further as people are drawn into the areas around the reserve by new industrial and energy-related development projects, requiring greater anti-poaching effort.

Subsistence hunting. Traditional hunting by members of the indigenous communities is permitted within the reserve as part of their agreed user rights.  As long as this does not affect protected species or become commercialized, subsistence hunting at present levels of offtake is not considered to be a major threat to wildlife.

A logging truck transporting timber from one of the timber concessions around Dja Faunal Reserve.  As these concession areas are progressively depleted of timber the threat of logging within Dja reserve increasesLogging.  Logging is widespread in the forests around the periphery of the reserve, where it is carried out by private concessionaires and local communities.  Although this does not have a direct impact on the integrity of the reserve, it facilitates access by poachers and increases the ecological isolation of the reserve (thus affecting natural animal migration patterns, seed dispersal and other ecological functions).  There is a risk that logging activity may spread into the reserve illegally, especially as timber resources in peripheral areas are depleted.

Mining.  Although there are no existing mining operations in the reserve or its immediate vicinity, the prospect of future mining operations is a real potential threat to the integrity of the reserve. Numerous mineral exploration licenses have been granted for areas around the periphery of the site, one of which also covered about 20% of the reserve (until it was revoked in 2013). There is concern over the recent award of a license to exploit cobalt and nickel from an area about 40km to the north of the reserve without adequate environmental and social impact assessment and other similar cases are likely to emerge in future.

The Dja River provides a natural boundary around much of the reserve, and is destined to provide hydro-electric power from a new dam at its confluence with the Megin tributary.  Construction of this dam is resulting in an influx of immigrants to the area, with demands for bushmeat and other forest resources Dam construction.  The “Mekin” dam is currently under construction at the confluence of the Mekin and DjaRivers and, on completion, the resulting reservoir will flood part of the world heritage site with corresponding loss of riverine habitat. The construction phase has already brought an influx of people and this is beginning to result in the development of spontaneous settlements, illegal logging and clearing for crop production, hunting, fishing, and poaching.  Whilst the environmental and social impacts of the dam are recognised, the project does not appear to include appropriate measures to mitigate the impacts of the dam on the reserve’s world heritage values.

 

A small-scale oil palm plantation adjacent to Dja Faunal Reserve.  Much larger commercial plantations will fundamentally change the forested landscape in which the reserve is located, impacting on its ecological integrityCrop production.  A concession covering 452 km2 of land adjacent to the reserve has been awarded for the development of rubber, oil palm, and cocoa plantations by the Cameroun company, Sud Hevea. According to the operator, this could result in the arrival of some 30,000 new immigrant workers and associated people. The potential impact of such a large population living close to the reserve – in terms of pressure for bushmeat, other forest products and economic opportunities – is severe and requires effective management if the integrity of the reserve is to be maintained.

 

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Links to other places in the African Forests category:  Salonga  l  Okapi  l  Tai Forest  l  Lope-Okanda  l  Sangha Trinational

Links:  Google Earth | UNEP-WCMC Site Description |Official UNESCO Site Details | Birdlife IBA

The Dja Wildlife Reserve world heritage site (Cameroon) is one of the most diverse parts of the Congo Basin rainforests Baka pygmies are the traditional rainforest inhabitants of the area now designated as Dja Wildlife Reserve world heritage site in CameroonThe western lowland gorilla is one of the endangered species protected by the Dja Wildlife Reserve world heritage siteGiant rainforest trees such as this one in Dja Wildlife Reserve are increasingly rare as more of the Congo Basin rainforests are subjected to logging

 

 

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